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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  August 1, 2019 6:00pm-7:01pm PDT

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captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woodruff: good evening. i'm judy woodruff. on the newshour tonight:ow breakingthe federal budget. the u.s. senate approves a two- year spending blueprint. what's in, what's out, and what it will cost. then, the shape of the democratic candidate field, afr a second round of presidential hopefuls make their pitch to plus, paying for the past. u georgetoversity reckons with its slaveholding history, creating scholarships for students whose ancestors were enslaved by the school. >> people will say, "oh well that was back then," but the fact of the matter is tremendous edounts of wealth were ama and only because of us.
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all that and more on tonight's pbs newshour. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: life well-planned. learn more at >> consumer cellular. >> babbel. a language program that teaches spanish, french, ianlian, germanmore. >> a by the alfred p. sloan foundation. supporting science, technology, and improved economic performance and financial literacy in the 21st century. >> carnegie corporation of new
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york. supporting innovations in education, democratic nt, and the advancement of international peace and security. at >> and with the ongopport of these institutions and individuals. >> this ogram was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. woodruff: president trump is escalating his trade showdown with china. he announced today he wipo 10% levies on $300 billion worth of imported chinese goods as of september first.
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e president complained china is reneging on promises and slow-walking trade talks. s ke before heading to a campaign rally in cincinnati. >> for many years china has been taking money out by the hundreds of billions of dollars a year. we have rebuilt china so now it's time that we change things around. if they don't want to trade with us anymore, that would be fine with me. we'd save a lot of money. >> woodruff: today's move covers all trade withhina that was left out of earlier tariffs. it also comes after the latest trade talks ended this wk with no apparent progress. the tariff news did not go down well on wall street. tee dow jones industrial average lost 280 points being up nearly 300. it closed at 26,583. the nasdaq fell 64 points, and the s&p-500 slipped 26. a two ye budget and debt deal backed by president trump has won final appral in congress. it passed the u.s. senate today,
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67 to 28. the agreement includes sizeable increases for military and domestic spending; it also lifts the legal debt ceiling for two years. senators oboth sides hailed the outcome. >> the funding agreement we just passed will provide stability for our nation through 2020 and deliver on some of the administration's key priorities. 's been the result of extensive negotiations between president trump and speaker pelosi and represents a compromise between two sides who usually don't agree on much. >> it includes a significant increase in support for domestic priorities. in fact the budget deal increases domestic budt thority $10 billion more than defense. th groundwork to avoid another government santdown. will preserve the full faithed and of the united states. >> woodruff: most democrats backed the bill, along with 28
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republicans. another two dozen republicans opposed it, saying it adds too much to the national debt. we'll get the details after the news summary. there is word that north koreaho has fired more-range weapons for the third time in eight days. details on the test were scarce, but president trump today dismissed any concerns. he said, "these are short-range missiles. they're very standard." the president also declined again to address news reports that osamain laden's son hamza bin laden is dead. the reports say he was kille within the last two years, possibly in a u.s. air strike. he was the apparent heir to his father's work with al-qaeda, and was about 30 years old. osama bin laden was killed in a u.s. raid in pakistan, in 2011. in yemen, missile and bombing attacks killed 51 people today in aden, a city held by the government and its saudi allies. officials said 36 people died in ile strike at a military
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camp. 13 others were killed in a carmb bog. the explosions left buildings charred and floors soaked inbl ood at the military camp. the government blamed shiite rebels allied with iran. russian officials have deployed the miliry as vast wildfires rage across parts of siberia and the russian far east. fires are now burng in parts of five regions, and now coverze an area the f belgium. as flames spread in remote forests, crews have struggled to make and offisay dry conditions aren't helping. >> ( translated ): the situation with the fires is developing negatively, as forecasts warned. the area affecd has increased cause of the dry weather we've been having for a long time and a failure to take active measures in extinguishing the majority of hotbeds fires including those located in remote areas. >> woodruff: heavy smoke fm thefires has cloaked hundreds
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of russian towns and cities and en reached alaska and the pacific northwest. fires are also spreadingcross indonesia, with six provinces now under a state of emergency. a dangerous haze has blanketed an area that is home to moremi than 2ion people. some 6,000 firefighters have been deployed, but the fires have charred more than 74,000 the ict covering most of greenland is rapidly melti under the same heat wave that broke records across europe last week. images from the danish territory show melting across 56% of the ice sheet. the area has been growing, withi forecasts of ced warm, sunny weather. much of the lt will re-freeze but the amount that is lost for good might exceed the record loss in 2012. back in this country, former f.b.i. director james comey will not face charges over his handling of memos about
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his conversations with president trump. reports say the justice department found no grounds to proceed. comey let a reporter have access to some of his memos, which contained low-level classified material that prompt review. and, puerto rican lawmakers today delayed putng pedro pierluisi in line to be governor until at least next week he was chosen by outgoing governor ricardo rossello, w is stepping down tomorrow. pierluisi formerly represented puerto rico in the u.s. congress, but he faces strong opposition over his legal work for the island's highly unpopular fiscal oversight board. still to come on the newshour: the nation's new numbers. what's inside the tw federal budget deal? where the democraticef presidential hs stand after last night's debate. "new americans:" an inside look at the moment immigrants become u.s. citizens. and much more.
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>> woodruff: now, back to the budget deal we reported earlier. it is being hailed as a political win today, but is a raising concerut runaway debt for the united states. capitol hill correspondent lisae desjardins hascovering the negotiations from the very beginning. and she is here with me now, so lisa, hello. soemind us now, what is i this deal and then give us a sense of implications for the longer term too. th as you reported, judy, the head line is thais would raise the debt ceiling for the next two years. it also raises the maximum amountongress can spnd. they still have to work out exactly how to spend that money ner the next couple of mths, that is what we hear lot about. nhen you look deep letter is so much more to say lg-term. and we are going to have a lot of graphics so get ready t will be fun. >> woodruff: we're ready. >> let's talk about recent debt increases, ts is not the on
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one. this is about 1.7 trillion increase in the naiol debt, this comes of course after we saw a tax cut deal in the lastye twrs that would also raise the national debt an estimat 1 to $2 trillion, that is a lot of red ink that we ared ading. that is not the only issue here. deficits are rising in general and let's leak at exactly how much. there we go see the deficit rising? that is up to 2019.le bu's look at the where the trend is going after this. look at that. right now we are on course forit the defo just continue skyrocketing over the next few years. now as cngress passed this budget, as we told viewers, there was a lot of applause om lawmakers, there was compromise. there were other lawmakers who said ths is a problem. and a lot of them talked about the national debt. first let's talnk from republi rand paul and also democrat ben cardin. >> many of the support ares of th debted deal ran around their states for years compnning that president obma is spending too much, an borrowing too much.
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anesthsame republicans now, the whole disingenuous lot of them will wiggle their way to the front of the trof, to the front of the spending trough to vote for as much or more debt an president obama ever added. >> i heard a the lo of my colleagues come in here andr lament this aeement saying it was going to add to the deficit. some of those are the same t peopt voted for tax cuts. let's be direct about this. we have to have the revenues necessary to pay for what we incur in speudnding. >> most of congress voted for this and they also complained about it. so it is almost like saying we need to stop violence and then immediately punching someone in the arm. tongress here is being hin critical jz so-- hypocritical. >> woodruff: so tell us hof muchrole does this deal play, this particular budget deal play in et going that debt number up and up. >> this budget deal was about scretionary spending t is all
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the that because that is the only spending congress can y chanr to year. so let's look at the discretionary spending, this is what congress controls. we will show you a line right here. so discretionary spending has been going up and down, going up a little more here. e bigger budget problem is called mandatory spending. st much mo, a much larger percentage of the feds ral budget but congress does not control that i is automatic spending. and it is largely two thisongs. al security and medicare. so let's look at those two. this is the spending on those two items right now, around a trillion dollars each, that is now, in atn years let's loo the growth. both of those, medicare and social security, ontrend to double or nearly double and they are already one of the lrgest spending amounts, judy, if you look at this medicare, swrudy right now, it is onck to run through its trust fund in seven years so if law make ares dot deal with this, benefits will be cut. >> woodruff: so is anybody in washington who has the ability a to do somethiut this talking about it?
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>> there is actually more talk about this on capol hillment i talked to many law make ares, republican and democrat in the last coue of weeks who say we do need to reform, especially medicare and social security now. but the problem is, and even admitted toeade me president trump has said he does not want to touch social arcurity and med and that that is making, meaning that they can't get to that conversation. onanother issue on the hor judy, let's just talk about the interest we are paying on the national debtt riow it's almost 400 trillion dollars. that is enough to pay for oh, all the college tuition at ef university, iversity pre-k and a huge increase in the military that is just what we are paying e the national debt, on t interest, and judy, that is on track to double as well inthe next tenniers. >> woodruff: i remember when people thought a trillion was a lot of money, we are now talking about a lot more than that. >> we are way past that, we are n tricky waters. >> woodruff: lisa desjardins,
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thank you, appreciate it. >> you're welcome. >> woodruff: night two of the democratic presidential debate in detroit started with a handshake and a plea from former vice president joe biden to california senator kamala harris: "go easy on me, kid." this go-around, it was more than just harris criticizing the man leading the crowded democratic field. >> mr. vice president, you want to be president of the united states. you need to be able to answeron the tough ques >> mr. vice president, you can't have it both ways. eou invoke president obama m than anybody in this campaign. you can't do it when it's convenient. and then dodge it when it's not. >> mr. vice argument with--is not with me, it's with science. and unfortunately, your plan is just too late. >> under vice president biden's analysis, am ierving in congress, resulting in the deterioration of the familyus bei had access to quality
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affordable daycare? i just want to know what he meant when he said that. >> woodruff: we consider how last night shapes the race going forward with stuart rothenberg, senior editor of inside el ations, karine jean-pierr senior adver to, and amy walter of the cook political reportnd host of "politics with amy walter" on wnyc radio. to all of you, second night of the debate, it is now behind us. t me ask each one of you, and i will start with you, amy, clearly joe biden was taking incoming from a lot of directions last night, what was your main take away from thi debate? >> well, that he did. that is exactly what you saw. was that they came after joe biden, and look, t were times he looked a little shaky, times that he lookestronger. i think overall he weathered it pretty well. there was nothing that happened last night tat would lead you to believe that he has now been taken from his perch of the front run are.
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the other person who got a lot of incing was kamala harris who had a great first debate, and as such was a big target for the other people on the stage. she was fine but she also had to endure a lot of grilling and you know, she sent a lot of time on her heels instead of where she was in the first debate whichel was complon offense. >> woodruff: we will look at some of that in a second. karine, what was ur main take away within pretty much what amy just said, look, joe bden came into detroit as the frontrunner. he is going to leave detroit ash frontrunner. he didn't have a knock-out punch, if you will. and he didn't get knocked out as well. and he was, you know, he was a little shaky hself. t he didn't do any damage to himself either. and i wouldn't be surprised if his numbers go up a bit because one of the things that he did do was de fend the obama legacy which, as we know, is what is propelling his numberss the
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african-american community, who love obama. who loved the fact that joe biedern was his vp. look, judy, we saw six o hou debate over the last two nights. and we saw some folkso really well like warren and beut gierg and bernie and bidt en. don't think much will change moving forward. i don't think whoever came in in the tier one will be tier one, whoever game in in tier tw will be tier two and the folks who came in the lower tier will probably not make it to the next debate in june, which, sorry, t in june, which in september, which will be in houston. >> woodruff: and what is your top line. >> i will be the grader tonight. i think joe biden did better than the first debate.of buourse that was not difficult. he had a terrible first debate. so he was better. he counter attacked better. he had research agast booker that he could use. so he was better. but i thought his performance was very u.nev i don't think he has shown that
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he is veryn agile these odebates and that is a prblem. so while he is better off, i think he still has to ask some mestions. and ala harris, that was remarkable. she apparently thought she would have an easy go and very quickly found out that you won the first debate, doesn't mean you will win the second debate. i thought throughout much of e debate she looked bored, uninterested and deflated. >> woodruff: you and amy both mentioning kamala harris. we are going to show a couple oo sectiolast night's debate. but let's start with a piece where harris was compleerly a target. this has to do with health care. >> the senator hasad several plans so far. and any time someone tells youet you willomething good in ten years, you should wonder why it takes ten years. if you notice, there is no talk about the fact that the plan in ten years will cost $3 trillion, you will lose your employer-based insurance. >> unfortunately vice president biden, are you simply inaurate in what you are describing. the reality is that our plan
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mll bring health care to all americans under aedicare for all system. your plan by contrasleaves out almost 10 million americans. f senator harris is myriend as well. but i have to say, if we can't admit, if we can't admit tonight what is in the plan which is banning empbased insurance, we're not going to be able to admit that when donald trump is accusing democrath of doint as well. we need to be honest about what is in this plan. it bans pore-based insurance and taxes the middle class to the tune of $30 trillion. >> woodruff: amy walter, what is it about kamala harris' plan that isra atting all of this criticism in. >> well, this is the sort of continuation of the debated we had on the first night between those demtoocrats who wan go much further beyond obama, theda boes of obamacare into some form of medicare for all. and those like senator bennet, joe bidewho want to build on
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the obamacare.n but mentally, i think this is-- this is why parties don't like primary debates. because they spend a whole lot time arguing with each other, going into the weeds on a lot of policies. d they are not able to, at this stage of the game, talk about the things that aclly democratic voters, but all voters say they are the most worried about with health care, whicalis cost. espe prescription drug costs and surprise medical bills and high de dctions. none of that was discussed in these few debates in part cause they are arguing or ideology. now that is fine because it is a primary and ey are tryg to appeal to primary voters. but you can see why thiis such a challenging experience for party establishment and party leaders because they would like to see the democrats not 2350eu9ing amongst each other, focus on the president and focus especially on health carin the sawm way that democrats did in
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2018. >> woodruff: speaking of which, karine today, president trump put out aa statementrly this morning which another thing he said over the pastwo ds americans saw democrats arguing about how the government will take over their health insurance, eliminate their private plans, get taxpayer funded health re to illal immigrants, raise taxes to pay for it all. >> so, this is a thng that really has troubled me a lot last night whch was that they did bring up donald trump, right, the person that they want to beat in 2020, they litigated the obama legacy, the obama policies, but there is an existential threat of donald trump and that barely came up. we have a president who believes he is a above the law. there is the immigration policies.ri he is in courht now, his administration trying to take health care away from nse of millions of people. so that is the thing that i thought was really lacking. and just that cont trth donald trump, which is what
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vors want to hea they want to hear from these folks, not just about the policies but the number onein is how are they going to beat donald trump. >> let's look at ano last night, this was on immigration where vice president biden, presidentobama's policies came under criticism. >> on borders is a right wig talking point. and frankly i'm disappointedo thatme folks including some folks on the stage have taken the bait. the only way that we're going to guarantee that we don't have family separation in this country again is to repeal section 1325 of the immigration nationality acwe >> secretary sat together in many meetings. i never heard him talk about any of this when he was the secretary. the fact of the matte you should b able to, if you cross the boralder ill, you should be able to be sent back. st a crime. >> first of all. vice president, it looks lauck one of us has learned the lessons of
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the past and one of us hast. let me begin by telling you-- there is still going to be consequences ifoomebody crsses the border. it is a civil action. >> i have guts enough to say this plan doesn't m the fact of the matter is i think the president of the united states, barack obama out of his way to try to change the system and he got pushed ck significantly. >> woodruff: stu rothenberg, n is this a good discussr the democrats to be having right now. >> it is not. and i disontd think it is good discussion for joe biden to have with julian castro about immigration and the board are and 350e78 could coming to the united sta it goes back to one of your earlier sound bites where senator booker said you like to embrace barack obama and are you part of that administration. but what you don'tt you say uddenly, i can't discuss it, i think this is one ose areas where the former vice president is not very sharp or agile and he needs to get better.uf >> woo and amy, this really does pick up on your
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comment earlier about ths, this is a tough, all three of you were making this point, st tough during the primary when the democrats are trying to omdistinguish themselves fone another, but in so doing they potentially are hurting each other. >> that's rit, remember there is another incentive structure involved in here. swi how you get on the ebat stage in the first place. these debates have been set up this way. have two nights, tis is the second set of debates where we have to go two nights with ten candidates each. because of backlash from democrats, those in democratic sort of activist areas about how th6201ebates were created. they said there were too few of them, that bernie sand ares didn't get enough tim ad the right amount of time to show, to showcase himself. challenge secretary of state hillary clinton. and so their answer to that was to say we need to have lots of
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debates and make sure we open it up to everybody, get as many people involved as possible. well, the way to get on that stage is also to try to create as many of these moments as possible, rig. speak to the base, the low dollar donors who are going tobl beto get you back on to that stage and get enough of those low dollar donors, you get another chance to come on stage. so it is only encourages more on thisof in-fighting. >> woodruff: karine, i want you to comment. i will play is final chnk from the debate. this is on criminal justice reform, again the candidates criticizing each other, let listen. >> mr. vice president has said that since the 1970s every major crime, every crime bill, majorn and or has had his name on it. and sir, those are your words, not mine. and this is one of those instances where the house was set on fire and you claimedre sponsibility for those laws. and you can't just now come out with a plan to put out that
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fire. >> there is nothing done for the entire eight years he was mayor, there was nothing done to deal with the policdepartment tha was corrupt. why did you announce on the first day a zero tolerance policy of stop and frisk and when i was trying to get rid of the crack cocaine. >> mr. advice president, there is a thing in my comnity, are you dipping too the kool-aid and you don't even know the flavor. >> senator harris sayss proud of the record as a 3r-s cuter and will be a prosecutor president but i'm deeply concerned about this record. there are too many emples to crit but she put over 1500 people in jail for mar mar want a-- marijuana violations an laughed it about when askedf she ever spoked marijuana. >> i am proud of that work and am proud of making a dec not just give fancy speeches or be in a legislative body and ve speeches on the floor but actually doing the work of being in the position to use theow that i had to reform a system that is badly in need of reform. >> woodruff: so
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carine-- karine, this is getting personal, who comes out o discussion, an exchange like that looking stronger? >> this is really interesting, what you just played, judy, because you have, this is a very good example of the two frtrunners being on the defense, and when you are a frontrunner, this is what is going to hapurpen. ecord is going to be krut sized and we know with biden, his crime bit l th could authored, i shouldn't say his crime bill but the crime bill has coauthored has always been something out there since we have known that he s going to run, before he stepped into this n'ena. and he hreally dealt with it. you know, he hasn't really talked about it in a way tha people feel like he understands how much the crime bill has affected the black and brown community, now with kamala harris, that was the first time that she was pushed on her record as a prosecutor. an we're going to see this over and oveber agaiause you have to try and figure out how to de
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fend your record. and that s goes tobe kind of on the chopping blocks, if you will. >> woodruff: soa stu, wht are we left with here? >> we are left, i believewith harris and biden still having a lot of questions after this debate. seemed weaker than they should have been that probably meansat arren and sanders are looking a bit stronger. and that is a problem for democratic strategies who believe the party needs to move to the snar, noto the populist progressive wing. >> in just 15 seconds, amy, and we've got, we don't have fore debate for six weeks. >> we dond . and it sho a smaller debate. but i think that what a lot of folks want to see then, to stu's point, is joe biden, harris and warren and sanders all on the same debate stage. >> and perhaps we will see that in sepertemb >> thank you all, amy walr, carine jean-pierrestu
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rothenberg. >> thanks, judy. >> woodruff: stay th us. coming up on the newshour: after another deadly weekend, what can be done to stem the tide of gun violence in america? the debate over reparations, as a university comes to terms with its slaveholding past. and an actor gives his brief but spectacular take on finding himself rough the camera. the president'language on immigration, and his attacks on four congresswomen of color, have sparked a national conversation about xenophobia and racism. but across the country, every year, hundreds of thousands of immigrants still make way to the u.s. and begin the rigorous pcess to eventually become citizens. earlier this week, producer kate grumke went to a naturalization ceremony in alexandria,
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virginia, and talked to newly- minted americans about what it means to be a citizen and an immigrant in this politicallyar d time. >> next in line! next! >> my name is edgardo ramirez. i'm from el salvador. it's a very special moment because you know there's a lot of people that would really like the opportunity to do it, and thers no way they can. i'm glad it's coming to an endan i don't have to worry about any potential problems of me not being an american citizen. ♪ oh, say, can you see by the dawn's early li♪ ♪ ♪ >> well, today, my wife, jessica, and my daughter, sofia and my son gabriel is here with me. my daughter was kind of nervous on the way here because she sees the news sometimes, and i w,ld her, you k'm just going to become a u.s. citizen, and i don't have tworry about any of the stuff she sees on the news.
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i stayed with my grandther in el salvador. when i was five years d, my mother came here. and i came here with my older brother in october of 2000. it's a long between court gs, it could be years. 16 years i've been in process, and of course a lot of money to get to this point. >> i'm sara taylor. i'm the district director for the washington district,shnd u.s. citiz and immigration services. it's different for every person, but generally, they will have been here as permanent residents for three to five years. they'll pay an application fee and get biometrics taken to file they will be interviewed by an officer of the service, who will ittermine that they read, and speak english, they have to know civics and vernment as well. and then, the final step in the process is to take the oath of onlegiance at a naturaliza
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ceremony. >> so today, we naturalized 170 people so, in fiscal year '18, it was over 750,000 people who naturalized nationally, and this are northern virginia and d.c., are very, very diverse. >> congratulations to our newest citizens! ( applause ) >> i'm from zimbabwe. >> i am from vietnam. >> i'm originally fr philippines, and today i took my oath as a u.s. citizen. >> that is a great thing, toe a citizen. >> this is the land of opportunity. so i am really looking forward to that opportunity i can explore in this country. >> being able to vote is something that i think is very powerful, to be able topa icipate in that democracy. i am excited for november, and elections beyond.
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>> it is with great pride that i welcome you into the arican family. no matter where you come from, or what faith you practice, this country is now your country. >> i mean, earlier in the room that the message from the president, as well, right, very welcoming d other things, and it kind of sounded like a script compared to what he's currently saying out in the news. >> my opinn about immigration is, i think they should all come legally. and just do all the application and everything. and that will be good and easy. >> if you're here in america, you have to obey the law and follow the laws. >> i've had a pathway here since i came here because, well, my parents were here an were here for a long time. but you know, there's virtually e pathway for people to c cere because they're trying to get away from violyou know, poverty and struggles of their countries. it's not that easy. for people who have minor infractions and theyon't have a way so they can naturalize and, you know, they've been torn
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apart from their sons, daughters, wives, and family members, i just think it's very unfair. i'm ast glad that i'm finally u.s. citizen, after a long wait. druff: in the aftermath high profile shootings in gilroy, california, and brooklyn, new york, its worth noting that every day, guns are used to kill roughly 100 americans, injure hundreds more.ou and across thery, gun violence affects the lives of millions. john yang focuses on the deaths of two particular woman in chicago, last weekend. >> yang: judy, even in chicago, which has been plagued by gun violence for years, last weekend stands out: 48 peoplshot, eight of them g the dead were 26-year-old
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chantell grant and andrea stoudemire, who was 35. each woman had four children, the youngest had just turned one year old. theyere on a busy street corner in chicago's south side where moms and kids have gathered for the last five summers, transforming a corner wint a history of violence i a safe space. the group is called mask: mothers and men against senseless killings. it's the brainchild of tamar manasseh we visited her in 2016 on the very corner where chantell grant and andrea stoudemire were killed, and tamar joins us now from chicago. tamar, so go a to talk to yin, i just am sorry it is under these circumstances. start byelling us about chantell and andrea, i know you knew chantell better than a andrea. tell us about them. >> okay, furs off, mask, we are moms who occupy a corner, we don't have a membership trk is not like that. if you show up on that corne to eat dinner, you bring krur kids, they show up to play, paint faces, jump rope, pl
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hopscotch, then yeah, we are ththe, all moms to. so as far as them being members or not, because thereas been a t of discussion about that, is neither here nor there.l but chantas someone who with bring her kids to the corner. thd mom, and just play with them and hang out wit because that is what we do on that corner. ntd she was a loving and pat mom. she was a good mom.e and andrea, s had older children so we didn't see her in our space aseuch but we saw hr around the neighborhood every day. and she was fiercely pr of the young women in the neighborhood. thand there was srnl a wa she thought the young women should have been treated, that women should be respected. >> was chantell's children with her that nig. >> no, no. chantell was killed after our work hors. and i don't temember her being out that day. but the thing is i think that we are getting hung on that. in certain neighbor hootds it
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has just become exected for people to be murdered if they are out of their house at a certain time. if you are out of your home after it gets dark and you get murdered, than it is your fault t is not the murderer, it is dnur fault because you sho have been there in the first place because you made a bad choice coming outu because y need to make better choices, that are you around the wrong peoplebecause people in poor neighborhoods can't be out at a certain time, because our muers become our fault. i mean that is a major problem for us. and none of us are theette for it. >> the police have not arrested anyone yet. they were saying, the police say that they believed that the two women were not the target of the shooter, that a manho w was wounded was the target. do you go along with that? >> no, i don't. i don't. that sounds like once again victim blame. because you were around, women who are poor and live in a poor neighborhood were near a poor black man who lives in the same neighborhood, than he was the
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target, that is why they got shot. no, shooters shoot who they want to shoot. thats what they they shot two mothers on a site where moth ares codae everyy to feel safe, every day to bring their kids to, to play, to actually have a summer, to have a childhood, in a place where it is very hard to do that. they killed mothers there. and so i don't want to hear anything about a man.t i don't w hear anybody deflecting or anything, any of this di versionary conversation. because that is not it. people often look the oher way whenn are murdered in poor neighborhoods because they just pass it off as oh, they were around gangbangers. no, no one should be dying there. somebody has to take responsibility for this. that is why we started a reward fund. d go fund me to raise rew money. three days ago, we were just trying to raise $5,000. we have raised $22,000 in three days because people are tired of being tired. and women are tired of being blamed for how we are trated or
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mistreated. it is no more a black woman who is murdered in theo, it is nolt more her for being shot because she was poor than it is for a woman being rap because of what she was wearing. >> since this shooting, do you and the other mothers have been back out on that street corner.f has there bear and apprehension or has what happened given youreater determination. >> it has given us greater determination. i mean but it is fear and apprehension for other people in the community, and i don't blame them. and reclaim anything, we are not reclaiming anything. a never ceded our ownership of that. not going to let some kids with guns and behavior problems ruin what we have done. make us scared. we are not going to do that. why should we have to leay . ould we have to be afraid. we didn't kill those women, we didn't kill them.n' we dkill those mothers. we didn't do that. so why should we have to be afraid. why should the people who workwh hard every daylive good lives, why should we be afraid to live in the world that we
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create. why? why? >> you are solindion, you are working forward. you are talking about investing in the community it is a bittersweet week, losing these two mothers on friday night, an then lastght you opened up a new piz pza restaurance of pizza. >> yes. >> this is going to help fund eyur operations. what is that mooing to allow to you do? what will you be able to do witn that? >> actually we're building a school, a high school out of shipping containers. actually a community resource center out of shipping containers. aniach one of those shpping containers will be retrofitted as a classroom and dg nul. and last year chicago public schools closed doin all of public high schools in an impoverished area. and so it created a vacuum. so we have all of these kids whn go to school, not dropped out but they never actually weng toschool. so we wanted to find something for them to do all day. d if we are out during the summer but the kids don't go
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back to school in cement because they don't have a school to go to, that means we can't go back either. so we have to think about what could we do to fill that gap. so we decided sto create thi community resource center slash school where kids could come and get an education, where they would still have educational heportunities available tom. >> tamar manasseh, mothe and men against senseless killings. trying to make it safe one corn are at a time. thank you so much. >> thank you. #r >> woodruff: 400 yea this month, the first african slaves arrived inorth america, on a ship landing at the jamestown colony, in what is todayvi inia. ioonomics reporter paul solman looks at the queof reparations, what america might owe to the descendents of these
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enslaved people. the subject has been gaining increased attention, even coming up in this week's demoatic presidential debates. it's the latest in our regular economics series "making sense" and also part of our "chasing the dream" series on poverty and opportuny in america. >> i live alon >> reporter: as a little girl growing up in new orleans, melisande colomb was taught that she'd descend from people enslaved by an irish catholic family in maryland. >> and that we were very important people here in maryland, having been anpresented by none other francis scott key in a court case. >> reporter: yes, that francis scott key. ♪ ♪ before the u.s. supreme court, the fabled lawyer/lyricist represented colomb's ancestors, suing for their freedom.t. >> the finding of the supremeur was that black people
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could not use hearsay to defend their right to freedom in american courts. >> reporter: end of story. until she learned recently that "ownership" of those ancestors had been transferred tthe jesuits. the jesuits, in turn, hadwo soldf them, as part of a deal in 1838 to keep their near- bankrupt college afloat. sl>> it's one thing to be ed theoretically by an irish catholic family. it's a whole 'nother thing when you learn that that irish catholic family was the society of jesus. >> repter: the jesuits sold 272 people in all, to a pair of plantation owners in louisna. colomb's family? >> 16 and 17 years old, and shipped to the deepest, st racist new part of america. >> repter: the college in question?
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georgetown university in washington, d.c. >> the jesuits had georgetown. the jesuits also had tobacco plantations-- five of them in southern maryland just 50 miles awayreworked by people who we enslaved. when the story broke in 2016, ini, an otherwise typical georgetown alum, was stunned. >> i'm a moderate republican. italian-american. have no connection to african americans or the history of slavery. >> reporter: but he'd been taught injustice... by the tosuits. so, what happenehe 272 people they literally sold down the river? the school's answer: >> all of them quickly succumbed to a fever in the malodorous swamp world of louisiana. in otherords, they left no ngace and no descendants, so no point in going looor them. and i thought, you know, this is some sort of very powerful fever that only attacks african american catholic slaves from maryland.rt it has a 100ality rate. nobody writes about it, and
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it never comes back. i thought, this doesn't make sense. >> reporter: google reported that at ast two had survived. a genealogist he hired identified 215. >> and of eir descendants, we estimate that more than 4,000 of those are alive today. >> reporter: their ancestors saved georgetown... >> so naturally, the question is, what do we owe their descendants? from the billions and billions of dollars that today is the collective net worth of georgetown university and the maryland jesuits. >> reporter: there are goodness knows how many institutions in america of which the same thing could be said, no? >> georgetown is a unique case.n it's gzero for the institutional reparations debate. >> this building was built by elaves, and this building was built by slaves as >> reporter: georgetown, which was already in the process of renang buildings to atone fo its historical ties to slavery, also decided to make some amends to descendants: offering legacy admission status, and scholarships, to academically
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qualified descendants. tuition, room and board cost about $70,000 a year. >> i thought about it long andrd efore i made the application, becse it was just a wave of so much emotion. t >> reporte 65-year-old retired cook is now a rising junior. e and, reparations on a scr greater than georgetown's is a rising issue in the presidential campgn. economist william darity and his wife, folklorist kirsten mullen, have been studying national reparations for years. >> there are some blacks who have been very resistant in our audiences. >> "this will make us victims. white people will look down on us, they'll have more reasons te hate us, us harshly, more so than they already do." >> reporter: but their audiencer are moeptive to a reparations bill these days. >> it could include the provision of a fund that could support educational
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opportunities or entrepreneurial activity or improvements in community-based conditions and amenities. but we think, for both symbolic and substantive reasons, a part of this must be the payment of a check to those who are eligible recipients. >> reporter: how big a check? >> we start with 40 acres and a mule. >> that was the promise that was never fulfilled. >> reporter: a promise, by union general william mseh sherman, to confiscate a huge swath of the confederate coast and redistribute it as 40-acrepl s to the newly emancipated. assuming an re cost $10 in 1865, and allowing for infla ion and compouerest, darity pd mullen put the present-day value of shermanmise at something like $2.5 trillion-- $74,000 for each of some 35 million descendants. >> the premise is that there's been a grievous injustice that has carried over multiple
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centuries, really. >> people will say, "oh, well, that was back then." but the fact of the matter is, tremendous amounts of wealth were amassed, and only because of us. >> reporter: but is there no statute of limitations on historical injustices? >> well, there's no statute of limitations if those injustices are still wreaking havoc. the fundamental problem is, the inadequate set of resources that blacks can transfer from past generations, that creates the racial wealth gap. and that dynastic effect is associated with our whole history of white supremacy and racism in the united states. >> on those rare occasions when we did manage to buy land and to develop it, all too often something happened, something insidious. someone was cheated, someone was lynched in the family, the timing of a fire. >> reporter: but of course, notv yone agrees. you've been teaching at brown for years.
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economist gln loury, known for and brown, like georgelike harvard, like yale, was built to some significant extent by slaves, no? c >> yes, thattainly true, the brown family fortune did have a lot to do with the slave g ade. and there's nothinong with honoring the uncompensated labor of people who were enslaved to build institutions like this. >> reporter: but a national law? >> my problem with reparations, especially as it expresses itself in terms of financial atmpensation, is that it misunderstands thee of the injury. seeing blackness and african descent as some kind of subhuman category, that would legitimate in the land of the free and the home of the ave carrying on a commerce in human chattel. that was a deep and profound injury. it can't be made into a piece of cash. >> reporter: but you're an economist. the legacy of slavery, passed down from generation to generation, hampering, handicappi the progeny of those who were enslaved. t compensate them for th
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losses they've actually suffered? >> i d't want, want my country to take 35 million people and to see them as mainly the ryscendants of slaves. 150 years, it's a very long time to nurture that dimension of my identity, at the expense of every other aspect of my identity. african americans like myself, we're doing fine. this is a great and open society, and we have been finally and the fullness of time allowed to prosper. those who are poor are poor. their poverty needs to be confronted. there's no justification for giving increased attention to their poverty at the expense of other americans' poverty. >> reporter: you mean there's no difference in the legacy of a poor african american and a poor white in this country. >> no difference worthy of our political attention. >> reporter: loury h problem with a proposed fix at georgetown, however. students there have voted for an added fee-- $27.20 per student
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per semester, for the 272 people sold, to be paid to descendants. the university has yet approve it. and the idea here is that reparations should be made to the descendants of the people who were sold to keep the institution going. >> i have a little bit of a problem with the word reparation. black people can't be "repaired" in the midst of a broken white society. we cannot be repaired from racism and disenfranchisement when white supremacy continues to be a growing disease in our society. >> reporter: so what word would you us how about, some respect. some responsibility. >> reporter: acknowledgment. >> right. t >> reportehis is economics correspondent paul solman,
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reporting from washington. >> woodruff: tonight's brief but spectacular comes from english actor aml ameen. he describes how a chance encounter with movie star idris elba set him on path to honor his jamaican roots. tonight's interview is part of our ongoing coverage of arts and culture, "canvas." >> the story is, i kind of went to my dad at like six years old and i said, "dad, dad, iant to be an actor." and he was like, "you're sure, son?" i said, "yeah." he said, "all right."an say, sent me to a stage school. and from six to 16, i learned to tap, ballet, dancing. i just knew instinctively that i wanted to be an entertainer all around. ying, luck an old i when preparation meets opportunity. and so i think that's quite
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i was on my wa london to l.a.rd i just hrom the gods, right, "aml!" and i was like turned around and it was idris. had not seen idris in years. he was going to l.a. and i was going to l.aand we both got on the same flight for 11 hours. s ke about "yardi," this this book that he had grown up on and l gangster that comes to london. and he spoke about me doing this film and what it would be. both of our families, both our fathers were immigrants to england and what it meant at that particular time in the 80s and late seventies, being an immigrant and how the impact of jamaican culture in london, how it changed the nucleus of what london is now. it's a very multicultural place ocause of the contributio so many different immigrants, not least of all jamaicans.
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our "yardi," the film version, m is about a you who witnesses the murder of his older brother. it's a very important film in my life because it just reflects a story and a version of jamaica at's never been seen. you know, you know, we've got the "cool runnings" version of jamaica. we have the "shottas" version of jamaica, but the jamaica that myris captured was this very beautiful, almosical, magical island. and what was amazing for me is c ssed the part of myself that is now there forever.ow you jamaicans are bold, they're unapologetic, you know, through their poverty, there's still a lot of pride. my name is aml ameen and this is my "brief, but spectacular" take on finding myself through character. >> woodruff: you can find additional brief but spectacular
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episodes on our website, on the newshour onliht now, minisculelastic fragments are everywhere, and difficult to remove. a new study offers a possible long-term solution for cleaning plastics out of wastewater by using nanotechnology. learn more on our web site, and that's the newshour for tonight. i'm judy woodruff. join us online and again here tomorrow evening when mark shields and david brooks give their take on the 2020 race.r l of us at the pbs newshour, thank you and see you soon. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> babbel. a language program that teaches spanish, french, itali german, and ba's ten to 15 minute lessons are available as an app, or online.
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more information on >>onsumer cellular. >> financial services firm raymond james.on >> and with thing support of these institutions >> this prram was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsor by newshour productions, llc captioned by media access group at wg >> you're watching pbs.
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